Barbara Graham (Barbara Elaine Graham)

Barbara Graham

Graham was born Barbara Elaine Ford in Oakland, California to young unwed mother Hortense Ford. On February 23, 1925, Hortense Ford gave birth to a second daughter out of wedlock, Claire Elizabeth. Hortense Ford later married a man by the name of Joseph Wood, whose surname was then given to Barbara and Claire. Hortense had a child with Joseph Wood, a son, Joseph Robert Wood, born on March 27, 1930. By the time Joseph Robert was born, however, the father is said to have died. Hortense Ford Wood (1906-1989) was of Portuguese (Azorean) descent on her father’s side, the original family name having been Furtado.

When Barbara was two, her mother, who was still in her late teens, was sent to reform school. Barbara was raised by strangers and extended family, and, although intelligent, had a limited education. As a teenager, she was arrested for vagrancy and sentenced to serve time at Ventura State School for Girls, the same reform school where her mother had been.  Released from reform school in 1939, Barbara tried to make a new start for herself. She married Harry Kielhamer (1913-1993), a U.S. Coast Guardsman, in 1940, and enrolled in a business college and soon had her first two children. The marriage was not a success, and by 1942 she was divorced. Harry Kielhamer was awarded custody of their two sons. Over the next several years, she was married twice more, but each of these attempts at a normal life failed.

After this string of failures, Barbara is said to have become a prostitute: during World War II, she was a “seagull” – a prostitute that flocked near a naval base – working near the Oakland Army Base, Oakland Naval Supply Depot, and Alameda Naval Air Station. In 1942, she and some other “seagulls” flew down to Long Beach and San Diego. She was arrested on vice charges in these naval cities and in San Pedro. At 22, with her good looks, red hair, and sex appeal, she worked for a time in San Francisco for brothel madam Sally Stanford. She soon became involved in drugs and gambling and had a number of friends who were ex-convicts and career criminals. She served five years for perjury as an alibi witness for two petty criminals, and served her sentence at the California Women’s State Prison at Tehachapi. After her stint in state prison, Barbara moved to Reno, Nevada and then Tonopah. She worked in a hospital and as a waitress. Barbara became bored and got on a bus for Los Angeles, where she got a room on Hollywood Boulevard and returned to prostitution. In 1953, she married a bartender, Henry Graham, with whom she had a third child, named Tommy.

Henry Graham was a hardened criminal and drug addict. Through him, Barbara met his criminal friends Jack Santo and Emmett Perkins. She started an affair with Perkins, who told her about a 64-year-old widow, Mabel Monohan, who was alleged to keep a large amount of cash in her home in Burbank.  In March 1953, Barbara joined Perkins and Santo, as well as John True and Baxter Shorter (two of their associates), in robbing Monohan’s home in Burbank. Barbara reportedly gained entry by asking to use her phone. Once Monohan opened the door for Graham, the three men burst in. The gang demanded money and the jewels from Monohan, but she refused to give them anything. At this point, Barbara reportedly pistol-whipped Monohan, cracking her skull. They then suffocated her with a pillow.  The robbery attempt was a futile effort; the gang found nothing of value in the house and left empty-handed. They later learned that they had missed about $15,000 in jewels and valuables stashed in a purse in the closet near where they had murdered Monohan.

Eventually, some of the gang members were arrested and John True agreed to become a state witness in exchange for immunity from prosecution. In court, True testified against Graham, who continually protested her innocence. The press nicknamed her “Bloody Babs,” reflecting the public disgust for her alleged actions. Graham damaged her own defense when she offered another inmate $25,000 to hire a friend in order to provide an alibi. The inmate, however, was working in league with an undercover policeman in order to reduce her own vehicular manslaughter sentence. The officer offered to pose as the “boyfriend” Graham was with the night of the murder, if she admitted to him she was actually at the scene of the crime. The officer recorded the conversation. This attempt to suborn perjury, as well as the confession she was at the scene, destroyed Graham’s credibility in court. When questioned about her actions at the trial, she said, “Oh, have you ever been desperate? Do you know what it means not to know what to do?” Graham was ultimately convicted while the informant was immediately released from jail and her sentence commuted to time served.

Graham, Santo, and Perkins were all sentenced to death for the robbery and murder. Graham appealed her sentence while serving time at the California Institution for Women in Chino. Her appeals failed, and she was transferred to the death row at San Quentin State Prison to await execution. On June 3, 1955, she was scheduled to be executed at 10:00 a.m., but that was stayed by California governor Goodwin J. Knight until 10:45 a.m. At 10:43 a.m., the execution was stayed by Knight again until 11:30 a.m., and a weary Graham protested, “Why do they torture me? I was ready to go at ten o’clock.” At 11:28 a.m., Graham was led from her cell to be strapped in the gas chamber. There, she requested a blindfold so she wouldn’t have to look at the observers. Her last words were “Good people are always so sure they’re right.”  Barbara Graham is buried in Mount Olivet Cemetery, San Rafael, California.

More Images

  • Graham 1 -

  • Barbara Graham Riding - San Quentin, California, USA --- Original caption: Only a few hours of life remaining. San Quentin, California: Pictured as she entered the San Quentin Prison gates today is Barbara Graham, 31, mother of three, who is doomed to die in the gas chamber at 10:00 am tomorrow for the 1953 murder of Mrs. Mabel Monohan, 62, of Burbank, California. A car brought her to San Quentin from the Corona, California prison. Two men convicted with her, Jack Santo, and Emmett Perkins, will be executed a few hours later in the same gas chamber. --- Image by © Bettmann/CORBIS

  • Graham 3 -


  • June, 26, 1923
  • USA
  • Oakland, California


  • June, 03, 1955
  • USA
  • San Quentin Prison, San Quentin, California

Cause of Death

  • Death by gas chamber


  • Mount Olivet Catholic Cemetery
  • San Rafael, California
  • USA

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